Navigating the infamous Californian penal code

“Government is the greatest combination for forces known to human society. It can command more men and raise more money than any and all other agencies combined.”

David Dudley Field II.

The California penal code is well-known for being very long and complex, making it difficult to understand for everyday, non-legal clients. This means it requires specialist lawyers to navigate its complexities, who are more familiar with its changing nature and frequently added new sections.

In order to be able to adapt to situations like these, such lawyers must develop keen analytical and research skills. They will also have to possess great memory power, which is largely down to the fact that the California penal code is referenced by its section number alone. This is unlike some other sections of the United States code.

As a lawyer, being able to navigate your clients through some of the most complicated aspects of law prepares you to handle any situation. Dealing with some of the more challenging criminal codes in the world gives you a comprehensively strong grounding in law that you can then use to build a successful career. This article explores the historical nature of the California penal code, its complex exceptions, as well as its ever-changing nature through its constant additions.

The history of the California penal code

The code originated in 1872 as one of the original four Californian codes, being derived from the Field penal code that was named after David Dudley Field II. He was one of the original code commissioners for the New York code commission.

David Dudley Field II - Wikipedia
David Dudley Field II.

The California penal code contains six different parts, which are then subdivided into titles, chapters and sections. The code’s job is to organise criminal acts and their respective punishments. Therefore, it comprises of a very long list of offences, which are then themselves broken down again into sections leading to further information on subcategories.

Exceptions not covered by the penal code

Some particular criminal acts are recorded separately from the California penal code. Namely, there are two other codes which cover all of the other criminal activity and areas of the law.

The first of these is the California Health and Safety Code, which is where all drug laws relating to crimes and their respective charges are kept.

The second is the California Vehicle Code for anything relating to motorists, motor vehicles and traffic matters in the area.

New additions to the California penal code

As previously touched on, the code is constantly evolving. The California penal code is a leading example of a criminal code that adapts as the legal system and the world around it changes.

For example, the code was an early adopter of cyberbullying laws, detailing various laws and regulations surrounding anti-bullying laws initially, which were then later followed up with cyberbullying-specific additions.

The above is just one example of the code’s many additions over the years and, as such, it is a fairly expansive and thorough set of enactments for a lawyer to get to grips with. There is no doubt that there will be more additions to come in the future that they would also need to study to stay on top of its shifting nature of law.

Concluding remarks

The California penal code is a good reference point and example of what a complicated set of legal regulations looks like. Familiarising yourself with a system like this, as a lawyer, can enlighten you as to what other criminal codes from around the world look like – and how one can navigate them if they were required to.

Lawyers who are specialists in interpreting the California penal code can help defendants immensely, who would otherwise be overwhelmed by its complicated nature. They are a leading example of professionals who are able to put fantastic legal brains to use so that they can quickly adapt, recall information and stay on track of its changing laws.

Accident? What You Can Claim Compensation For

“Accidents—you never have them till you’re having them.”


We’ve all seen the adverts and listened to the cold calls asking if we’ve been in an accident that wasn’t our fault. In fact, we all know that there is potential compensation on offer should that actually happen. Negligence and accidents that could be avoided happen in the thousands, each and every day. For some, it’s a minor scrape and a lucky escape, but for others it can have a significant impact on their life and have a lasting effect.

In many cases, accidents such as motor collisions or sports injuries are down to human error or bad health and safety procedure and leave people needing a large amount of healthcare. A study by Newsome Melton found that those who were involved in an accident and damaged their spine spent an average of 12 days in hospital and 37 in a rehabilitation center following that. On top of that, only 11.5% of those injured are back in work a year after the accident, which can really take its toll both mentally and financially. 

The stress involved in accidents is significant, which is why so many people seek compensation for injuries that were not their fault. What you can claim for varies depending on the accident and circumstances, but there are a number of common expenses which are covered by it. So, if you ever do have an accident feel you deserve to be compensated, you can seek financial remuneration for the following.

Lost Wages

Naturally, while in recovery you will almost certainly miss out on a large portion of work, particularly if your role involves manual labour. You can seek compensation to make up for all the lost wages you have suffered as a result of the accident.

Wallet, Credit Card, Cash, Investment, Money, Financial

Medical Care

Medical care while in the hospital after the accident (as well as any future care required due to the incident) can be claimed for, such as prescription drugs, rehabilitation, physiotherapy and more. If you require medical aid in some capacity for the foreseeable future, you can claim for it.

Syringe, Pill, Capsule, Morphine, Needle, Liquid

Care Givers

If permanent care is required, you can make a claim in order to pay for this. This could potentially be due to a family member having to give up work, or you having to pay a professional carer to look after you on a daily, weekly or monthly basis.

Computer, Business, Office, Technology, Laptop, America

Support for Family

As well as support for yourself, you may also find that your family needs support either emotionally or to become more informed on the injuries and be able to help effectively. This can often be costly, as they may be required to go on courses, take time off work (unpaid) and more.

Beach, Family, Fun, Leisure, Ocean, Relaxation, Sand

Travel Expenses

Specialists can often be based hundreds of miles away, meaning there’s no option but to travel in order to get the best care and rehabilitation programmes. Petrol, bus tickets and taxi costs can be covered for medical care, should you claim for compensation through the courts.

Petrol, Gasoline, Diesel, Gas, Automotive, Prices, Oil

The above are just some of the many more factors that can be expensed for depending on your circumstances. By seeking a lawyer, they will be able to help you understand exactly what you can and can’t claim for based upon the specifics of the accident.

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